Binocular Vision Dysfunction: Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatments, and Testing for BVD

binocular vision dysfunction

Vision is one of our most vital senses, playing a crucial role in our ability to interact with the world around us. Good, clear vision, particularly binocular vision, is essential for performing day-to-day physical tasks. Good vision allows us more freedom in our activities and prevents discomfort like squinting. It also keeps us safe and helps maintain our mental sharpness.

Furthermore, there are risks associated with poor eyesight. As per a poll mentioned in the NCBI, 88% of respondents identified good vision as vital to overall health. Poor vision can affect our quality of life, lead to accidents, and even contribute to mental health issues like depression. 

Factors such as aging, excessive screen time, and a lack of physical exercise are contributing to the increasing prevalence of eyesight problems. One such problem that demands attention is Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD).

What is BVD?

Binocular Vision Dysfunction, commonly referred to as BVD, is a visual disorder where the eyes fail to work together in a coordinated manner. This condition arises when there is a slight misalignment between the two eyes—a discrepancy that might seem minor but can cause significant discomfort and disruption to daily life.

The wide array of symptoms associated with BVD can include:

  • Eye strain or fatigue, which often feels like the eyes are exerting more effort than they should.
  • Difficulty with reading, such as trouble focusing on text or experiencing words seeming to jump around on the page.
  • Double vision, a single object appears as two images, causing disorientation.
  • Dizziness or sensations of vertigo, especially during movement or position changes.
  • Frequent headaches or migraines, typically following visually demanding tasks like extended periods of reading or screen use.
  • Blurred vision, making it difficult to see objects clearly, whether distant or close.
  • Nausea, particularly when in motion or attempting to focus on peripheral vision.
  • Light sensitivity or photophobia, where bright lights are uncomfortable or even painful, leading to a preference for dimly lit environments.

It’s crucial to remember that while these symptoms can be disruptive and uncomfortable, there are effective treatments available to help manage BVD and improve the quality of life.

Diagnosing Binocular Vision Dysfunction

If you experience any of these symptoms persistently, it’s important to seek medical advice. BVD is diagnosed through a comprehensive binocular vision assessment conducted by an experienced optometrist or ophthalmologist. They will perform various tests to examine your eyes. The tests commonly involve:

Eye Movement Test

This test evaluates how well your eyes can follow a moving object and how they move when you shift your gaze between two stationary objects.

Focusing Abilities Test

This assessment measures how quickly and accurately your eyes can adjust their focus from far to near objects and vice versa.

Convergence Test

This test checks the ability of your eyes to converge, or work together, to focus on a single point as it moves closer to your face.

Depth Perception Test

Also known as stereopsis test, this examines your ability to perceive spatial relationships, particularly the distance between objects in your field of vision.

Cover Test

This test is used to determine how the eyes work together and can help identify if there’s an imbalance in the muscles that position the eyes.

Visual Acuity Test

This simple eye chart exam gauges your visual acuity at different viewing angles.

Refraction Assessment

The purpose of this test is to get the right prescription for your contacts or glasses.

Phoria Test

This test measures the latent misalignment of the two eyes when one eye is covered.

Treatment Options for Binocular Vision Dysfunction

Upon diagnosis, the following are the primary treatment strategies for Binocular Vision Dysfunction:

Corrective Lenses

Particularly, aligning micro-prism lenses are employed. These lenses work by rectifying the eye misalignment and hence, mitigating the symptoms linked with BVD.

Vision Therapy

Vision therapy, often personalized to fit the individual’s needs, involves exercises and activities that can help train the eyes and brain to work together more effectively.

Orthoptic Exercises

These are eye exercises designed to improve coordination and focusing of the eyes. They can be done at home or in an office setting under the supervision of a trained professional.


In some severe cases, strabismus surgery may be recommended to realign the muscles that control eye movement. This is typically considered only after other treatments have been tried and are not effective.


Medication may be used, though it is uncommon, to treat any underlying disorders, such as neurological disorders, that may be causing BVD. 

Please note that while Binocular Vision Dysfunction can be managed effectively, it’s not completely curable in the conventional sense. Thus, management and treatment require continuous attention and care.

Natural Ways to Help Mitigate Symptoms for BVD

Beyond professional medical treatments, there are natural lifestyle modifications that can aid in managing BVD. One of the most beneficial lifestyle changes is incorporating regular physical activity. Exercise has been shown to enhance general health, which includes eye health. Physical activities like walking, cycling, or even yoga can help improve blood circulation, reduce pressure on the eyes, and potentially alleviate some symptoms of BVD.

Nutrition also plays a pivotal role in eye health. A diet rich in nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin C, lutein, and omega-3 fatty acids can help support eye function and reduce discomfort. Foods high in these nutrients include oranges, carrots, leafy greens, fish, and eggs. Ensuring you maintain a balanced diet can go a long way in managing BVD symptoms.

Another important component in preserving eye health is getting enough sleep. Making sure you get enough sleep each night is crucial because it allows your eyes to relax and recuperate from the activities of the day.

Reducing screen time has additional advantages. Long-term screen time can cause eye strain and worsen symptoms of BVD. Try to take regular breaks during periods of extended screen use, and consider using blue light blocking glasses to reduce eye strain.

Even though these home remedies can help manage symptoms of BVD, it is always best to speak with your doctor before making any big changes to your lifestyle or course of treatment. They can offer you individualized counsel based on your unique requirements and situation.

Lastly, remember that early detection and intervention are key when dealing with BVD. It is critical to seek professional evaluation and treatment if you are dealing with ongoing vision-related issues. This will guarantee the greatest result and assist in halting additional vision loss.

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